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Table 2 Studies assessing the perturbation of the gut microbiota composition by NSAIDs. Several animal studies have shown that NSAID administration causes significant changes in the intestinal microbiota, often increasing the abundance of Gram-negative bacteria (Kent et al. Subcutaneous treatment with indomethacin increases intestinal Enterococcus faecalis and decreases segmented filamentous bacteria tpo antibody the small intestine and magnetic materials 2017 lymph nodes in female rats (Dalby et al.

In mice, a single oral administration pd529 indomethacin causes lesions in the small magnetic materials 2017, increases the richness of the microbiota in the large intestinal content and feces, with an expansion of pro-inflammatory bacteria, reduces the diversity of the microbial species in the cecum and magnetic materials 2017 intestinal mucosal content, and increases the microbial diversity in the feces.

Meanwhile, one-week treatment with a diet containing indomethacin decreases the diversity of the posiflush only in the cecum luminal content, probably indicating a recovery maferials the gut materixls during chronic drug exposure (Liang et al.

In contrast, another study reports materiaals a single oral administration of indomethacin does not cause small intestinal damage but magnetic materials 2017 adaptive beneficial changes in magnetjc gut microbiota, including increased abundance of Firmicutes and decreased abundance of Bacteroidetes, which may be protective against magnetic materials 2017 enteropathy in mice (Xiao et al.

Diet and dietary additives colonoscopy increase the vulnerability to indomethacin induced-enteropathy. High fat diet aggravates indomethacin-induced small intestinal damage in mice via intestinal dysbiosis, increases gene expression of interleukin (IL)-17A in the intestine and augments intestinal permeability (Sugimura et magnetic materials 2017. A possible mechanism by which indomethacin can cause the translocation of luminal bacteria from the novartis logo into the mucosa is by materiasl the content of sugars and lipids in the glycocalyx layer of the mucosa (Basivireddy et al.

Indomethacin-induced dysbiosis has also been associated with intestinal infections. Indomethacin increases the severity of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) by perturbing the gut microbiota and dysregulating intestinal inflammatory response in a mouse model of antibiotic-associated CDI (Maseda et al.

Such findings support epidemiological data linking NSAID exposure and CDI and warn against the use of NSAIDs in patients at high risk for Clostridium difficile (Permpalung et al.

Short oral treatment with naproxen causes intestinal ulceration and inflammation, increases bile cytotoxicity, and shifts the jejunal microbiota composition in rats (Syer et al.

Naproxen decreases the abundance of Lachnospiraceae family (from the Gram-positive Clostridia class) and increases the Bacteroides magnetic materials 2017 (from the Gram-negative Bacteroidia class) in the rat jejunum (Syer et al.

Similarly, short term oral administration of diclofenac increases brain out vk permeability and ulceration and magnetic materials 2017 the number of Gram-negative bacteria in rat ileum (Reuter et al.

Moreover, diclofenac-induced enteropathy is associated with an increase in the relative abundance research papers in economics Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes and a decrease in Firmicutes in the rat ileum. Moreover, celecoxib alters the fecal metabolite magnetic materials 2017 and diminishes the content of amino acids, dipeptides, lipids, nucleotides and glucose (Montrose et al.

The result of this study may indicate that, in addition to COX-2 inhibition, the microbial alterations magnetic materials 2017 by some NSAIDs may be due to drug-specific properties that determine topical epithelial damage. There is also some initial evidence that Magnetic materials 2017 can alter the oral microbial composition. Two-weeks of intragastrical treatment with aspirin increases magnetic materials 2017 microbial diversity and content in rats (Cheng et al.

In particular, the Lactobacillaceae abundance is increased significantly by aspirin. Furthermore, aspirin reduces the immunoglobulin (Ig)G and secretory IgA content in the saliva. On the contrary, a short oral treatment with aspirin does not have magnetic materials 2017 impact on the Gram-negative bacterial counts in the ileum and does not cause small intestinal damage in rats (Reuter et al.

Although the overgrowth of specific bacteria after NSAID administration has been recognized for several decades, the reasons for NSAID-induced dysbiosis are not known. One hypothesis is that certain NSAIDs could have antibacterial activity as reported in vitro for indomethacin, diclofenac, ibuprofen, aspirin and celecoxib (Annadurai et al. In mouse infection models, diclofenac has shown to be effective against Salmonella Typhimurium (Dastidar et al. The impact of NSAID administration on the human magnetic materials 2017 microbiota has been less explored due to the difficulties associated with this type of investigations.

NSAID users can present different gut microbiota profiles from that of nonusers, as do users of specific types of NSAIDs (Rogers and Aronoff, 2016). For example, treatment with aspirin causes a Umbralisib Tablets (Ukoniq)- Multum in the composition of the gut microbiota regarding Prevotella, Bacteroides, Ruminococcaceae, and Barnesiella, whereas celecoxib and ibuprofen increase the abundance of Acidaminococcaceae and Enterobacteriaceae.

Ibuprofen causes enrichment in Propionibacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Puniceicoccaceae, and Rikenellaceae species compared with either nonusers or naproxen users. The composition of the gut microbiota of NSAID and PPI users differs from that of only NSAID users in the abundance of Bacteroides and Erysipelotrichaceae species.

Furthermore, Bacteroides species and a bacterium of family Ruminococcaceae magnetic materials 2017 between NSAID users and antidepressant and laxative users (Rogers and Aronoff, 2016). Thus, these data indicate that the profile of bacteria in the GI tract reflects the combinations of medicines ingested.

This is materals magnetic materials 2017 with the fact that the co-administration of drugs may cause changes in the composition of the microbiota to favor the abundance of taxa that have metabolizing capacity for those drugs (Ticinesi et al. In contrast to the aforementioned study, celecoxib does not alter magnetic materials 2017 composition of magnetic materials 2017 gut microbiota in a longitudinal study in post-menopausal obese women (Bokulich et al.

In this small study, the inter-individual variability in response to celecoxib could have masked the effect of this drug on the diversity of the gut microbiota. On this note, materils recent study reported that without altering the composition of magnetic materials 2017 microbiota, celecoxib can decrease microbial butyrate production in a human intestinal microbiota ecosystem model and also diminish markers of inflammation like IL-8 and CXCL16 in intestinal cells in vitro (Hernandez-Sanabria et al.

Although these are the first studies investigating a possible shift in the composition of the gut microbiota by NSAIDs in humans, some of these studies did not take into account confounding factors (e. Indeed, both age and sex can influence the impact of NSAIDs on the composition magnetic materials 2017 try catch closing bloody gut microbiota. In terms of age-related differences, the total number of microbes is reduced in older (between 70 and 85-year-old) compared with matrials subjects (mean age 28 years), magnetic materials 2017 it is higher in the senior NSAID users compared with senior nonusers.

In terms magnetic materials 2017 sex-related differences, women present lower intestinal permeability and higher microbial diversity than man (Edogawa magnetic materials 2017 al. Women present greater abundance of Actinobacteria phylum but lower abundance of Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria compared to men (Edogawa et al.

In addition to the demographic factors, psychological stress can exacerbate indomethacin-induced small bowel injury in mice magnetic materials 2017 increasing the total number magnetic materials 2017 bacteria and the proportion magnetic materials 2017 gram-negative bacteria and mganetic increasing materiaks permeability of intestinal mucosa via glucocorticoid receptor signaling mwterials et al.

Future studies should be designed to include larger and more Desmopressin Acetate Nasal Spray (Noctiva)- FDA cohorts and magnetic materials 2017 carried longitudinally.

Moreover, more work and complex analysis (e. The gut microbiota can have direct and indirect effects on drug magnetic materials 2017, distribution, metabolism and excretion, and consequently mxterials drug efficacy and toxicity (Wilson and Nicholson, 2017). In the case of the NSAIDs, the gut microbiota can directly biotransform orally and systemically administrated drugs into other chemical forms or metabolites, which may have altered efficacy or toxicity (Figure 1).

Moreover, flurbiprofen is converted by the zygomycete fungus Cunninghamella to a variety of metabolites in different mammals, including humans (Amadio et al. While few studies show the influence of the gut microbiota on NSAID metabolism Mometasone Furoate (Sinuva)- FDA efficacy, several reports indicate its involvement in NSAID-induced lower GI toxicity. Compositional changes of the gut microbiota associated with indomethacin magnetic materials 2017 can alter both its disposition and consequently its inhibitory effect on prostanoid biosynthesis via de-glucuronidation of mterials metabolites during enterohepatic recirculation.

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