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Several studies (Table 3) have reported that the treatment with large spectrum antibiotics can reduce the severity of NSAID-induced intestinal damage in animal models (Kent et al.

For example, indomethacin-induced intestinal damage is partially prevented by the Ant, Fly, Cockroach, and Mosquito Allergenic Extracts (Insect Allergenic Extracts)- FDA with poorly absorbed antibiotics in rats (Konaka et al.

Also, naproxen causes a significant shift in the microbiota composition of rats, and young mania with a cocktail of antibiotics reduces the severity of naproxen-induced small intestinal ulceration (Syer et al. Diclofenac-induced enteropathy is reduced by rifaximin, a broad-spectrum oral antibiotic, through both anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory activities in rats (Colucci et al.

In addition, some studies propose that antibiotic treatment novartis tablet also facilitate the healing of intestinal lesions (Kent et novartis tablet. In addition, metronidazole, an antimicrobial targeting most Gram-negative bayer rus Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria, reduces the occurrence of NSAID-induced enteropathy in rats and in humans (Bjarnason et al.

However, the fact that antibiotics cannot completely prevent the NSAID-induced la roche test indicates that additional factors are involved in causing the initial intestinal damage. Table 3 In vivo studies reporting the impact of antibiotic treatment on NSAID disposition, toxicity and efficacy. The use of other novartis tablet co-prescribed with NSAIDs, like for example PPIs, can have deleterious effects novartis tablet small-bowel lesions, possibly through a combination of intestinal dysbiosis and increased intestinal permeability.

In rats, PPIs significantly exacerbate naproxen- and novartis tablet intestinal ulceration and bleeding by causing a reduction of the jejunal content of Actinobacteria and Bifidobacteria, probably through changes of the pH in the GI tract over novartis tablet extended period of time (Wallace et al.

In germ free mice, the colonization with Novartis tablet intestinal flora prevents the NSAID and PPI-induced small intestinal damage, whereas the colonization with bacteria from PPI-treated rats facilitates the development of NSAID-induced enteropathy (Wallace et al. Similarly, a recent study reports that PPIs aggravates indomethacin induced-enteropathy by reducing the population of Lactobacillus Johnsonii in the small intestine of mice (Nadatani et al.

Consistent with the results of these animal studies, human data revealed that PPI use represents a risk factor for NSAID-induced small intestinal damage (Watanabe et al.

In addition, a meta-analysis of clinical studies comparing small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) risk among adult users of PPIs vs nonusers indicates that the use of PPIs is associated with SIBO, a condition that can cause excessive fermentation and inflammation, leading to a variety of clinical complaints including bloating and diarrhea (Lo and Chan, 2013).

Thus, dysbiosis secondary to PPI use may exacerbate the NSAID-enteropathy. The involvement of Gram-negative bacteria in the pathogenesis of NSAID-induced enteropathy seems to be linked to the activation of toll like receptor (TLR)4 that enhances inflammation and contributes to intestinal lesions (Watanabe novartis tablet al.

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), when present in the lumen, can activate NLRP3 inflammasome through the binding to TLR4 in the intestinal cells, causing infiltration of neutrophils novartis tablet macrophages and resulting in deep ulceration of the small intestinal mucosa.

Neutrophil activation damages the small intestine novartis tablet the release of cytotoxic agents like reactive oxygen species, elastases, and proteases (Bertrand et al. Neutrophils are important effector cells involved in NSAID-induced small intestinal damage since depletion of neutrophils from mice or rats reduced novartis tablet lesion formation in response to NSAIDs (Chmaisse et al.

On the other hand, macrophages that reside in the small intestine regulate the integrity of the epithelial barrier via secretion of IL-10 (Morhardt et al.

This anti-inflammatory cytokine plays a critical role in intestinal homeostasis and in the restoration of the epithelial barrier after NSAID-driven damage, novartis tablet a process that does not seem to be directly regulated by T and B cells or the gut microbiota (Morhardt et al. T cells novartis tablet dispensable to trigger NSAID-induced enteropathy since both euthymic and athymic nude rats develop intestinal ulcers following administration of indomethacin to the same degree than conventional rats (Koga et al.

All major bacterial phyla present in the mammalian GI tract (Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Novartis tablet, and Bifidobacterium) express the gus gene (Pollet et al. The reactivation of previously detoxified NSAIDs conjugates via novartis tablet circulation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of NSAID-induced enteropathy. Enterohepatic recirculation of NSAID determines repeated and prolonged exposures of the intestinal mucosa to relatively higher concentrations of the active molecules (Reuter et al.

Similarly, Inh1 alleviates ketoprofen-or indomethacin-induced enteropathy in mice, without interfering with the biliary excretion of NSAID conjugates (Saitta et al. NSAID-induced changes in the microbiota can elevate secondary bile acid ratio, favoring intestinal damage (Blackler et al. Furthermore, bacterial enzymes that produce large quantities of secondary bile acids can as novartis tablet amplify the damage against the intestinal mucosa by increasing the enterohepatic circulation of NSAIDs (Duggan et.

Thus, the severity of NSAID enteropathy is correlated with the amount of drug excreted in the bile and the rate of enterohepatic circulation (Duggan et al. Indeed, ligation of the bile duct prevents NSAID-induced intestinal damage in mice and in rats (Yamada et al. Moreover, intestinal damage by diclofenac is prevented in rats lacking the hepatocanalicular conjugate export pump, a protein required for the excretion of conjugated NSAIDs into the bile (Seitz and Boelsterli, 1998).

Finally, the use of NSAIDs that do not undergo enterohepatic recirculation is not being associated with enteropathies (Reuter et al. Some poorly absorbable antibiotics that novartis tablet Gram-negative bacteria prevent NSAID-induced enteropathy in mice (Uejima et al. However, these treatments are novartis tablet effective in limiting intestinal damage (Syer et al. Supplementation with probiotics (rational selection of specific probiotic strains) in chronic users of NSAIDs may help to restore an altered intestinal microbiota novartis tablet et al.

Pre-treatment with viable Lactobacillus casei strain Shirota (LcS) improves indomethacin-induced enteropathy by suppressing of neutrophil infiltration and gene novartis tablet of inflammatory cytokines (Watanabe et al. Similarly, L-lactic acid produced by LcS suppresses indomethacin-induced small intestinal damage extract nettle root rats (Watanabe et al. Moreover, culture supernatants of Lactobacillus acidophilus or Bifidobacterium adolescentis reduce NSAID-induced ileal damage by repressing unbalanced growth of aerobic bacteria novartis tablet lipid peroxidation in rats novartis tablet et al.

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